Bachelor's degree: First
(undergraduate) degree from a tertiary institution.
organisms that have a very simple cell structure
and no distinct nucleus. Some bacteria cause
diseases, like pneumonia and tuberculosis,
but others are necessary to all life on
Earth because they break down dead organic
Bag limit: A restriction
in the number of fish that an angler may
retain over a certain time (e.g. a daily
Bailer: A bucket or other
container used to remove water from a boat.
Baleen: a tough, horny
material growing in comb like fringes from
the upper jaws of some species of whales.
Ballast: Weight used
to give a boat proper stability and trim.
Bamboo sharks: sharks
of the genus Chiloscyllium, which live in
shallow waters around coral reefs and have
bamboo-like markings when young.
a tiny coral reef fish with large eyes and
patterned skin, found mainly near the island
of Banggai (near Indonesia).
Barbel: a long, slender
organ extending from the chins of some fishes,
sometimes used as a lure to attract prey.
Barnacle: an invertebrate
animal that lives in a hard shell attached
to a rock, boat bottom or other hard surface.
Barnacle shells are cone-shaped, like tiny
volcanoes. Barnacles are crustaceans, related
to crabs, shrimp and lobsters.
caused to humans by water pressure. Occurs
to divers and snorkellers.
Base size: The size of
a base sheet of glass when making an aquarium.
Bathyl: the deep-sea
region between 600 and 6,000 feet (183 to
Bat ray: a species of
ray which has long fins that look like bat
Beach erosion: Natural
process where sand moves off a beach during
Beach hoppers: tiny,
shrimplike animals that live among piles
of kelp washed up on beaches; they hop like
fleas to get away and are sometimes called
Beacon: A navigation
aid such as a light or lighthouse. Can be
an EPIRB (emergency positioning indicating
Beam reach: Sailing with
Beaufort scale: Scale
of wind force.
Bell: the round, non-stinging
part of umbrella-shaped jellies, known as
Bends: "the bends" is
a painful condition caused when nitrogen
gas forms bubbles in a diver's blood. Scuba
divers risk getting "the bends" if they
come up too fast from a deep dive.
Benthic: on or near the
bottom of a lake, river or ocean.
Benthic echinoderm: a
sea star, sea urchin or other echinoderm
that lives on or near the seafloor.
Benthic jelly: a jelly
that lives on or very near the seafloor.
Benthic mollusc: one
of a group of soft-bodied animals that live
on or near the seafloor. deep sea snails
and clams are benthic molluscs.
Beta carotene: a natural
yellow pigment, present in many vegetables
and extracted from green algae.
Bilateral symmetry: Has
left and right sides that are approximately
Bio-balls: Plastic balls
used to grow aerobic bacteria, worms and
other micro-organisms to act as a biological
filter in aquariums.
and phytoplankton that produce light by
a chemical reaction. The production of visible
white light by organisms.
biomass: The total amount of living matter
per unit of surface or volume, expressed
as a weight.
Black-necked stilt: a
shorebird with a dark back and long red
Blade: The broad, flattened
leaf-like part of a seaweed thallus.
Blooms: Jelly blooms
are the result of reproduction events where,
in its asexual stage, jellies bud multiple
polyps, and these polyps divide. It's thought
that blooms of jellies occur when waters
are overfished or when a species is accidentally
introduced into an environment and begins
to take over.
Blubber: Thick layer
of fat under the skin of marine animals
that keeps them warm in winter.
Bluefin tuna: a group
of tuna species with iridescent blue skin.
Bluefin are some of the ocean's biggest,
fastest predators. They live in cold water
and can weigh up to 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms).
a small tropical fish with a square, boxlike
body. The "box" is stiff body armor made
of stuck-together scales.
Bommies: Rocky reefs
found under the water.
Bonito: a sleek, fast-swimming
fish in the tuna family.
Boom: A spar that secures
and extends the foot of a sail.
Booms: Arms used to trap
oil after an oil spill.
Bow: The forward part
or front of a boat.
Brackish: Water of less
than normal ocean salinity, usually ranging
between 0.517 per cent.
Bray: A loud call of
black footed penguins and others in the
genus Spheniscus. Penguins bray when mating
or defending territory.
Breaking strain: Fishing
term used to indicate when a fishing line
will break under a load. Measured by loading
a line against a set of weights until it
Breathing: When air can
be seen or heard to come out of the mouth
or nose. Associated with rise and fall of
chest. Needs to be established for CPR and
Brittle star: A sea star
that has a small central body surrounded
by many long, brittle arms.
Budding: The process
by which young jellies, called polyps, produce
Buoyancy: The ability
or tendency of a marine organism to float.
Buoyancy vest: A lifejacket
used for sheltered waters.
Buoys: Marine instruments
used to measure ocean currents air temperature,
water temperature, wind speed or salinity.
A floating, anchored marker used as a navigational
aid or to mark a danger spot.
Burrower: An animal that
digs a hole to live in.
Butterflyfish: A member
of a large family of colorful coral reef
fishes with flattened bodies and small mouths.
Bycatch: Fishes or other
animals caught by accident in fishing gear;
species that the fishers don't want to catch.
Bycatch is usually thrown back dead or dying.
Bycatch is also called "bykill" or "wasted
Bycatch Reduction Devise:
Equipment attached to commercial fishing
equipment to reduce the amount of bycatch