Pack ice: Ice made from
Paddles: Instrument used
to propel a canoe forward.
qualities of the environment, e.g. light,
temperature, dissolved oxygen.
Palp: Another word for
Parasite: An organism
which lives off other organisms.
Parasitism: A symbiotic
association in which one organism (the parasite)
derives nourishment as it eats the blood
or tissue of another (the host), usually
without killing the host.
Parts per million (ppm):
Measure of concentration of levels of oxygen
or nutrients in water samples.
Pebbles: In environmental
education, non-confrontational, simple sayings
that draw attention to controversial issues.
Pectoral: To do with
the shoulder; in fish, the pectoral fins
are those at the sides behind the operculum.
Pelagic: Open ocean,
as in pelagic plants and animals that live
away from the ocean floor. Pelagic sediments
are those that fall to the seabed from the
Pelvic: At the hips.
The pair of fins at the back of a fish's
body are called pelvic fins.
Penis : The male reproductive
organ used to pass sperm into the female.
Perch: A name for a fish
with a rounded body; the common name of
"perch" is given to many different and unrelated
species of fish around the world.
Materials that deteoriate quickly in air
or water, e.g. eggs, apples.
used to kill pests on plant crops.
Petrochemicals: A chemical
made from petroleum.
pH: A measurement of
how much acid is in a substance.
used in cleaning products which, released
into the environment, stimulates algae to
Photic zone: The zone
of the ocean into which light penetrates.
The upper sunlit ocean layers to 350 feet
deep (195meters), also called the epipelagic
Photophore: A body organ
that makes light.
Photosynthesis: The process
by which green plants use energy from sunlight
to produce sugar and oxygen from carbon
dioxide and water. The plants capture the
sun's energy with the green chemical chlorophyll.
Phyla: Plural of phylum,
the basic subdivision of the animal kingdom.
There are 25 of these groups.
Phylum: In biology, a
category that's part of the scientific system
for grouping together related plants, animals
and other organisms (kingdom, phylum, class,
order, family, genus, species). Phylum is
the category that ranks below a kingdom
and above a class.
floating plants and other kinds of microscopic
green organisms that drift with ocean currents
and use the sun's energy to make food.
Pickle-weed: A small
terrestrial plant that lives close to the
sea; it can grow in salty soil that would
kill most other land plants.
Pilings: Long, heavy
timbers or beams that support a wharf or
Pinniped: A member of
the group of sea mammals that includes seals,
sea lions and walruses.
Pipefishes: A group of
small, slender fishes, related to sea horses.
Planktivore: An animal
that eats plankton.
Plankton: Plants and
animals (mostly tiny) that swim weakly,
or not at all, and drift with ocean currents.
Plankton are an important food source for
many organisms that live in the sea.
Plate: In geology, a
big piece of the earth's crust. The earth's
crust is broken into many plates, which
move very slowly as they float on molten
rock deep below. Where plates meet, they
bump and jostle, giving rise to earthquakes.
When one plate is pushed beneath another,
mountains, trenches and volcanoes form.
Plimsoll line: A line
placed on the hull of ships showing the
maximum depth to which they can submerge
when they are loaded.
Plumage: The feathers
of a bird.
roots of mangroves.
Pod: A pod of marine
mammals is a group of animals travelling
Pollock: A fish related
to cod, heavily fished by people for food.
Pollock are made into fish sticks and imitation
Pollution: The introduction
of substances by humans into the marine
environment which results or is likely to
result in deleterious effects that harm
living resources and marine life.
cropping of aquacultured animals.
Polyp: A young jelly
that results from the joining of sperm and
egg; a polyp attaches to a surface and produces
identical copies of itself or ephyra.
Polyp: Any sea animal
with a fleshy stalk and a crown of tentacles;
coral animals are polyps and so are sea
Pop-rivet: Small metal
plug used with pop-rivet gun to secure two
sheets of metal together.
Porpoise: A member of
a group of small whales that have spade-shaped
teeth and rounded snouts.
Port: The left side of
a boat, as seen from aboard facing the bow.
Prawn: A shrimp or shrimp
Precipitation: The depositing
of water onto the Earth's surface as a solid
(snow and hail) or liquid (rain and dew).
Predator: An animal which
hunts to catch food.
Preen: To groom and arrange
feathers. A bird preens its feathers to
keep them clean and in good working order.
Prey: An animal that
is killed and eaten by a predator.
Pressure: Term used to
describe the speed at which air particles
affect the walls of a container. Increase
the speed and you increase the pressure.
Pressure air cells: Moving
air cells above the Earth's surface which
Primary dune: First dune
to be found as you walk up the beach towards
the dune system.
Primer bulb: Rubber bulb
used to move fuel from tank to engine when
Process: A series of
actions that bring about a result. Scientific
process involves making observations, formulating
hypotheses, designing and conducting experiments,
collecting data, analysing results, drawing
conclusions and sharing findings with others.
Producers: Life forms
(plants, diatoms, some bacteria) that produce
their own food from simple, non-living chemicals.
Producers are the basis of all food chains.
Protein: A large group
of organic compounds that most organisms
use in the construction of their bodies.
Muscle, skin and many other kinds of living
tissue are made at least partly of protein.
Many animals need protein in their diet.
Propeller: Part of powered
vessel used to propel a ship forward or
in reverse. Device with a revolving hub
and a radiating blade.
Puffer fishes: A family
of small fishes that puff into a ball when
Pulse: Regular throbbing
of the arteries caused by the beating of
the heart. Can be felt in throat or wrist.
Purse seine: A type of
fishing net used to surround and catch large
schools of fish. The net pulls shut at the
top and bottom and looks like a bag or purse.